Currently we frequently hear about black and white witchcraft , how to remove witchcraft moorings?, witchcraft to drive a person away , among other things that arouse the curiosity of hundreds of people around the world and not always with the best intentions.
But witchcraft is a group of beliefs whose origins go back many centuries and is common in many ancient cultures.
If you want to know a little more about this topic, I invite you to read this article.
What is witchcraft?
Witchcraft is a word that you can find different meanings and therefore lends itself to confusion, because it all depends on what type of material you consult when looking for information.
The term comes from witch, that is to say a woman who is related to the magical arts and paranormal events.
Witchcraft is defined as a series of rites and beliefs that are considered magical, inexplicable or superstitious carried out by witches and wizards to modify the course of events.
In other cases it is designated as an evil practice that uses an alleged alliance with the forces of evil to achieve its goal.
This usually represents the opposition to the recognized religion and its association with black magic is very frequent.
Around the middle of the thirteenth century, different people, often female, are attributed supernatural powers that allowed them to invoke evil spirits.
However, there are also those who defend a totally different meaning for witchcraft, some writers define it as the religion of the origins or ancient paganism .
This was born with the appearance of man on earth and accompanied him throughout the centuries, varying from one place to another, from one culture to another.
types of witchcraft
As you might guess there are several very different types of witchcraft. The difference is made mostly by the individual who practices it and the intention with which it is carried out.
It should also be taken into account who is the target of witchcraft, if it is for the sorcerer himself or for others.
Witchcraft that is used to harm is very different from that used with the intention of doing good or attracting good things.
Generally the types of magic or witchcraft are associated with colors, this because there is a certain relationship between these and the qualities and characteristics of it. The types of witchcraft are white, black, red and green.
The witchcraft or white magic, is all that knowledge, knowledge and ability that aims to keep evil spirits and energies away, freeing it from spells, enchantments or curses.
White magic spells also refer to natural magic, the individual engaged in white magic is usually referred to as white healers or witches.
These people were and still in many cultures are considered wise men or women, who intend to heal and provide a service to humanity, much more than earn money with their knowledge.
White magic practitioners use chants, incantations, verses, and prayers to heal people. This type of occultism is usually disinterested and currently practiced in the world by very few people.
The first vestiges of this considered as a pseudoscience can be found in the ancient Egyptian culture, where it was practiced as a religion.
Although there is no clear evidence that this time was the oldest to perform spells, however it can be confirmed that magic, witchcraft, occultism or sorcery has been performed for centuries.
Magic or witchcraft was always taken into consideration to prevent and cure ailments that were thought to be disasters at the time.
Currently, we can still find many cases where modern science suggests the use of alternatives like this when it believes that a particular disease or situation is out of control and this can simply favor the patient and perhaps alleviate their ailment.
This form of spells does not necessarily require a specific environment or elaborate ingredients, it is usually a simple, flexible procedure that seeks above all to give results.
These spells and enchantments are offered and recited to the gods and goddesses, it is said that to make them happy, celebrate them and thus cure illness or turn misery into fortune.
The practice of white magic is, according to many gifts and spiritual learning that ancestors inherit to their descendants, which is why they are magicians.
This is a legacy that is passed on to be shared, since it is for the benefit of itself and of all those who need it.
Black magic are practices that summon, conjure and try to dominate malevolent entities and forces to affect and harm others, considered by many as satanic witchcraft.
Black magic tends to take advantage of the negative and as such is considered dangerous, so it is not recommended to deal with this phenomenon at all.
His purpose is to go against the beneficial and divine plans envisioned for humanity, gathering dark forces.
Currently, many people who seek to cause harm or subdue the will of others resort to this type of spell, using entities and spirits to torment.
You will often find witchcraft rituals invoking the soul alone and other entities, which say that you can achieve your purposes, however remember that nothing is better than what makes you a better person.
Red magic is known as a type of sorcery related to sexuality and the influence on feelings. It is also called sexual magic and is often used to inspire passion or love interest.
It is that kind of witchcraft to drive a man mad, dominate him or bend his will, as many people suppose. For this it is very common to hear of the use of witchcraft requesting the anima alone.
Sorcery of moorings of love , of domination, to bend and tame abound, but does witchcraft of this type work?
It is not really a question of whether it is useful or infallible to perform this type of spell, but that you consider if it is the alternative or the indicated resource to capture the attention of a person.
When such enchantments are used to bend a person’s will or to try to keep him by her side, it is not really the path to happiness.
Remember that everything you give comes back, so be very careful about the type of resources you use just to please your whims.
Red magic is also known as Hoodoo, from Voodoo, brought to America by Africans during the slave trade and widely practiced by those who settled in the southern United States.
It is defined as a mixture of indigenous spiritual practices of the peoples of the Congo and other African tribes.
It is said that red magic is practiced just like the others, with potions made from herbs, minerals and in some cases the tissues and blood of animals used for witchcraft.
However, some claim that semen, menstrual blood, saliva and urine can be used for red witchcraft spells .
When talking about blue magic, reference is made to those practices that focus on contact with superior or evolved spiritual beings.
It is associated with study and constant knowledge, but also with powers of healing physical and spiritual ills.
Witchcraft or green magic is usually considered as part of white magic, since it does not seek to harm, harm, subdue or twist someone’s will,
His practice is directly related to phytotherapy, that is, with the study and use of the healing property of plants, as an alternative medicine to heal many ailments.
All cultures from very remote times used plants to heal the ailments that afflicted them.
The figure of shamans, witches, sorceresses, healers, etc., who used green magic, then called by many other names, is part of all cultures in the world.
In green magic, plants are used for the improvement and cure of different conditions and ailments, to improve and increase fertility and also as a method to avoid conceiving.
Generally in this type of magic, spells or spells are not performed on the person, they are simply administered potions, infusions, creams, lotions, ointments, among other things, based on roots, seeds, stems and leaves to give health and well-being.
Some of the plants considered sacred in the world or the most widely used plants for witchcraft are: lotus flower, mistletoe, peyote, holy basil or tulsi, basil, mugwort, bamboo, etc.
San Ignacio bean
It is also known as Igasur bean, it is a seed with a very bitter taste and unpleasant smell.
Many indicate that the San Ignacio bean is used to remove witchcraft , supposedly being very effective. This seed is recommended for witchcraft that was put in the food .
However, it is very important that you are aware that this seed made known by the Jesuit missionaries in Europe, even having some medicinal properties, is deadly if consumed in high doses, because it has a high content of strychnine.
black and white witchcraft
Witchcraft was initially considered neither black nor white, since it was a belief that it was about respect for mother nature, it was presenting some changes, since there is always the individual who wants to use it at will.
Taking this into account, it can be said that the practice of witchcraft is not completely positive or completely negative, this is the same for witches or warlocks.
That is why on many occasions you will be able to hear of works and rituals that are not exactly positive or show a good face of this type of belief.
Today witchcraft is used very often to harm others, twist their will or force them to act in a certain way.
Witchcraft or white or protective magic never disappeared or was completely despised, as it was in many cases a benefit or relief for people, especially when it was to heal.
By contrast, organized society disapproved of black or destructive magic, regardless of whether the official religion was monotheistic or polytheistic, because black magic was seen as rendering its victims unfit to function productively in society.
It was known as fence or hedge witchcraft, the isolated and solitary practice of witchcraft, fundamentally of Wiccan beliefs.
This type of practice in witchcraft is related to the deep and exhaustive study of plants and the natural world.
The term witch of the fence or hedge is a way of honoring the wise men and women of old, who generally lived on the outskirts of the villages, beyond the hedge.
Their practices were very natural and homemade, that is why witches of this type usually link magical intentions and tasks with daily routine activities. They were also known as the Green or Kitchen Witch.
Hedge Witch Story
The hedge witch term is a tribute to the past, to history. In days of old witches or warlocks, but more often women, lived along the fringes of towns and villages, behind hedges or fences.
A fence or hedge was an enclosure made with sticks and interwoven branches or with plants that grow very bushy or thick, which delimited the towns.
One side of the hedge was the town and civilization, but on the other was unknown and wild nature.
Generally these witches were on the edge of both worlds, as they acted as healers or wise women for the villagers and lived closely with nature.
They spent a lot of time collecting herbs and plants in the woods and fields, beyond the hedgerows.
The hedge witch of old used to practice alone and lived her day to day simply, but full of magic.
Simple acts like preparing a pot of tea or sweeping the floor were full of magical ideas and intentions.
Perhaps most importantly, the Hedge Witch generally learned her practices from other members of her family or older and wise mentors.
Over time he honed his skills, through years of practice, trial and error.
These practices are sometimes called green crafts and are heavily influenced by folk customs of yesteryear.
A little history…
All those knowledge and activities attributed to those people whom many know as witches or wizards, have a long history that goes back to very ancient times.
Throughout history there is a lot of talk about witchcraft and therefore about those who practice it. There are countless cultures on this earth that are related or were intentionally related to these practices.
It is a phenomenon that changes from one culture or tradition to another, each one, as expected, with different characteristics and, as is still the case today, they use this type of knowledge with different intentions and purposes.
Here is a brief tour of the history of this controversial group of beliefs:
The word paganism in history refers to various pre-Christian religions belonging to various ancient cultures, for example, those of Greece, Rome, Egypt, Scandinavia, etc.
However, it is considered to be an inaccurate phrase to name or encompass these aforementioned religions, even though it is currently the accepted term for them.
It is important to examine where the word actually came from and what it initially meant, allowing for a better understanding of the world’s religious past.
The term paganism has its origin in the Latin word pagus , which means field or territory, from which the word paganus , which means peasant or country dweller, originates.
Therefore, you can deduce that the term paganism refers to the beliefs of the inhabitants of the fields and rural areas.
Paganism is generally a belief that does not have a single God, that is, it is polytheistic and is almost always related to natural phenomena or elements.
The term paganism was revived during the Renaissance era, when many historians and writers were trying to differentiate the old traditions from the contemporary Christian faith.
So the term from the Latin paganus and actually describing an individual from a certain locality rather than a religion changed.
Due to its frequent use in ancient texts, medieval authors mistakenly convinced that it referred to a religious sect or group, gave it that connotation.
Actually, a different word was used to refer to or describe those now known as “heathens” and that word too, believe it or not, arose primarily from where the religious adherents were located.
The word that was initially used instead of paganism was Hellene or Heleno and referred to Ἕλλην (Hellas), the ancient Greek name of what is now called Greece, that is, the native name.
When the Christian religion began to appear in Eastern communities, the term Hellenic or Hellene was used to differentiate people devoted to the Christian faith from those who were not Christians.
Much of the inhabitants of Hellas remained faithful to their old religions.
But with the beginning of the disputes and struggles between Judaism and Christianity, the Jewish faction had to make sure that they were not associated with them. Since they were not from Greece, Hellene became the perfect name or term.
It was common for the various religions to refer to themselves by their ethnic origins rather than by the gods they worshipped, they simply referred to themselves, such as Romans, Greeks, Egyptians, etc. of course in your own language.
This announced both where they came from and their religious factions as well.
This way of labeling or naming was largely due to the fact that the political and religious aspects of life were too closely linked, they were the same entity. Thus, this same form or tradition was continued by the early Christians.
According to ancient sources, it was in the late Roman Empire (between the year 200 and its fall in the year 476 after Christ) that the term pagan began to be used, this being the easiest way to group and separate all the non-Christians in conversations, documents, decrees, among others.
The term became popular more as a matter of convenience than precision and respect.
Well, it is worth noting that with the emergence of the great religions the name of paganism was assigned to all beliefs that were in opposition to these that were established.
Then all those who practiced them became witches and wizards, who were perceived as evil beings.
It is important to note that paganism was a term that was not used with the intention of differentiating polytheistic religions from monotheistic ones.
This term is not applied by the number of gods that each religion worshiped, since many of the so-called pagans did not consider it important to differentiate based on the number of gods they worshiped.
The followers of the ancient religions did not necessarily have anything against Christianity, due to their preference for a single deity.
Many sects had a primary deity as the center of the religion and around or below this those who were considered subordinate deities, who were also worshiped.
The title or name of paganism was only used with a single objective, to refer to non-Christians and non-Jews, isolating them in a solitary category, which could simply be destroyed and replaced more easily.
This effort to group all non-Christian religions under one umbrella, as if they were one, was a smart and effective strategy implemented by early Christians to completely eliminate religions that they considered to be opposed to them.
Many of the traditions of that time did not have a name, really the term religion was not something that identified them because it was not really known to them.
For example the Nordic traditions, the Vikings of the early medieval period did not have a name for their religious followers, because they did not know what a religion was, they could call their practices with a more appropriate word: custom.
For the Vikings, similar to the Greeks and Romans, had rituals, beliefs, and traditions that were undefined and fluidly interpreted, passed down orally rather than more studied and rigid structures.
There was no word that encompassed all Norse beliefs, nor was there a written text that discussed their practices, until the Christian author Snorri Sturluson wrote his mythology in the 13th century.
What is currently considered the Nordic religion is actually the legacy of the Christian missionaries, that is what they saw, appreciated or simply what they decided.
Its textual product was a material that did not collect thousands of years of tradition correctly, but amalgamated beliefs, rites and gods.
The consolidation of not just the Norse tradition, but all other “pagans,” into a simplified faith, detracting from cultures that were actually very rich, provided the early Christians with a more direct target to eliminate and replace.
Although the phrase “paganism” is widely used to describe the followers of the various ancient religions, it is important to understand where the term originates and the misconceptions behind its use.
However, it is clear that too many centuries have passed since the word “paganism” labeled the followers of these ancient cultures, despite its original meaning.
But it is always important to know and be informed of the real origin of the term, which in turn allows us to understand the history of certain aspects of the ancient world.
With this I do not want to make any judgment regarding the behavior of the ancients, their little tolerance, whether or not it was correct to disappear so many cultures and customs.
But it is very important to understand that it is never too late to learn, because knowing our history, we can build a better present and therefore a better future.
Witchcraft during the medieval period was considered evil and the work of Satan.
Civil laws were influenced by the Church and many laws against witchcraft were created, so the image of witches in medieval society was repudiated by many.
Those who contributed through the use of herbs and plants stopped doing so and anyone found guilty of witchcraft was severely punished and usually burned at the stake.
There was also a distinction between black or bad witches and white or good witches.
In the Middle Ages religion takes hold, which was not exactly synonymous with peace, but rather a time of significant racial and religious discontent.
Religion was the main driving force behind almost all the important events of this time, this includes wars and the suffering they caused.
In the early Middle Ages, Christianity spread rapidly and was part of all strata, entered the courts of Europe exclusively by political means, that is, the kings accepted Christianity only to increase power and political influence.
As the centuries progressed, the pagan peoples, that is, all those who went against the Christian religion because they practiced magic and sorcery, were oppressed, mistreated and forcibly converted.
The last pagans in Europe were the tribes of Lithuania and the neighboring Finnic Seto tribe.
The religious wars were also unrestrained and cruel, the invasions of the Muslims provoked serious and great conflicts, which created differences and distances between Christianity and Islam that still prevail today.
Catholicism made its way to the courts of Western Europe, purging anyone who dared to think and act differently, not just by peaceful means.
You can deduce that freedom of expression and worship did not exist in medieval Europe, a situation that was not only related to interest in religious beliefs, but also to an interest in wealth.
Wars, assassinations, massacres, lynchings, and massacres all had the flash of gold behind them. They all wanted power and wealth, competing for more and more wealth, using the poorer classes for their own benefit.
The gold so valued and coveted, poisoned many minds and consciences. The traditional way of life of this period was subdued by greed, wars, riches and indoctrination.
During the Middle Ages, especially in its beginnings, witchcraft was considered a crime that was punished with the same force as causing poisoning.
The imposition of the new religion changed the customs and ways of life of the common people, this included all spiritual and religious beliefs.
People’s thoughts about what their authorities considered witchcraft also changed, turning into superstitions.
According to the baptismal sacrament, medieval people were required to denounce all the works of demons. In the early medieval period up to the 10th century, witchcraft was constant and increasingly relentless.
In the medieval era, witchcraft was a very complex subject and did not have a precise definition because the opinions between different cultures and religions in medieval times varied a lot. However, its most common definition would be to believe in and practice magical abilities.
During the Middle Ages, witchcraft had a religious, medicinal, and divinatory role, and could be thought of as paranormal, witchcraft, superstition, possession, and the nature of worship.
In the medieval period, religion, especially Christianity, had a great impact on people’s thoughts regarding witchcraft.
The so-called pagans believed in “witchcraft”, in nature and its power, in the ability to control nature with their will and that each natural power was associated with particular gods and deities.
But in the medieval period, many Christian preachers announced that witchcraft was an evil act, that religion and pagan magic were the invention of the devil, therefore, it is not necessary to explain what was thought of who was a believer and practitioner. of some of this so-called pagan custom.
Various civil laws were also passed, thanks to pressure from the Church, discouraging witchcraft and imposing punishments on people deemed to be involved in witchcraft, such as being burned at the stake.
In the medieval period it was believed that witches had demons in their power and controlled them for their personal interests, also having sexual relations with them.
Witches or warlocks were said to have the ability to cast a spell, to achieve some goal or influence someone through this magical action.
From the eleventh to the fourteenth centuries there were mixed thoughts about witches and wizards, as there were people who considered them healers and helpful, while there was another group of people who feared them and considered them evil sorcerers.
There was also a distinction between medieval witches, some witches were called white witches, as they were considered wise women, whose knowledge was considered useful for humanity, as they knew of healing through herbs and plants.
While other witches were called “black witches” mainly because many thought they wanted to harm others for personal gain and power.
Beneficial spells were considered a boon as they mostly benefited mankind, such as getting rid of illness.
Harmful spells were known as “curses” and were performed primarily with negative intent or to control nature through paranormal or mystical means.
Witchcraft in the early medieval period
Saint Augustine, the Christian theologian, was of the opinion that demons aided sorcerers and thus their supernatural arts were useful.
He also claimed that pagan religion and magic were a creation of the devil to tempt people away from Christianity.
This perception was strengthened over time and it was thought that the witches had made a secret pact with the devil.
In the early Medieval Period it was also believed that witches could change their shape, cause bad weather and other natural phenomena, as well as fly whenever they wanted, especially at night.
Witchcraft in the Middle Period
In the mid-medieval period, civil law was greatly influenced by Christianity, so it was not uncommon for many laws against witchcraft to be established and declared to be “maleficium”, which meant to do evil.
Magic was later declared to be an act of the devil and was not only a crime against society, but also a crime against God.
This had a negative effect on the positive view that people had of those considered wizards or witches, but above all on the benefit that their activities left to the community.
Especially because many of these people who were considered witches had experience in treating diseases through plants and herbs, but with these kinds of laws over time most of them had to abandon these activities.
Witchcraft of the late medieval period
In the late medieval period, people began to consider other ideas in relation to witchcraft.
Many of the ideas and practices were accepted in secret, such as those that predicted the future, healing through spells, the use of different types of ointments, etc.
In some countries the so-called “healing magic” was accepted, this considered the positive side of witchcraft.
There were also the so-called medical witches or white witches, their main job being to rid people of evil magic and the diseases it caused.
Many of these people were not witches, but were considered as such due to their sometimes unsociable behavior.
However, it was the time when people divided them into white witches whom they considered good and harmless, while those who considered themselves negative witches were called black witches.
The Renaissance was the beginning of the well-known and unscrupulous persecution of all those who practiced witchcraft, the so-called witch hunt.
Unusually, this period brought new beliefs about the supernatural, it was a sudden interest in witches, witchcraft, witch hunts, their trials and execution.
The idea that demons had recruited witches to act as their strength and power on earth made witchcraft in the West hysteria.
Witchcraft acts were often deemed heretical, often resulting in the execution of the accused.
The first printed books were generally bibles and some other religious subjects that generally promoted ideas about witches and witchcraft, promoting and provoking witch hunts during the 15th and 16th centuries.
In 1486 the Malleus Maleficarum was written and published, taken by Roman Catholics and Protestants as an authoritative source of information on the practice of witchcraft and a guide for the defense of the Christian.
For a long time it was a manual for so-called witch hunters throughout Europe.
Centered on the biblical quote, “You shall not suffer a sorceress to live” (Exodus 22:17), this book condemned witchcraft as heresy and outlined the procedures to be followed during the trials of those involved in this evil art.
During the Renaissance, the church included in its definition of practitioners of witchcraft any person with knowledge of herbs, ” because if they used herbs to cure themselves, they did so only through an explicit or implicit pact with the Devil.”
At that time, the ones who were mostly accused of being witches were women, however, she also appeared with men. Generally single people or widows, poor, old and unprotected.
During the regency of Elizabeth I of England, considered a modern and cultured woman who led the nation down the path of development and progress in some aspects, persecutions of those considered witches also occurred.
This sovereign feared witchcraft and sorcery and tirelessly persecuted it, proclaiming laws against its practice and promoting its eradication.
In Elizabethan times, this European country of the two hundred and seventy trials carried out on practitioners of witchcraft, 247 suspects were women and 23 were men.
During this period, men were much more powerful than women, being totally dependent on the male members of the family.
What was socially expected was that they obey men, enjoying very few rights. The elderly, poor and defenseless were considered a burden to society.
So many learned to solve their shortcomings and ailments by themselves.
Because doctors were not very common, many of these women were expected to know the power of plants to cure most diseases.
However, the time came when the possession of many of the herbs, roots and seeds used to carry out these cures were illegal, they were considered plants for witchcraft and could cause the execution of their owner, burning her at the stake.
The most frequent penalty for those accused of witchcraft was death.
Accusations took place in both apostolic and secular courts, and the law played as important a role as religion in the witch-hunt.
The courts in the provinces used to be more reckless, and probably more severe and violent in their treatment of the accused, than the higher courts.
In the localities, the courts would resort to crude, crude and superstitious measures, such as pricking the accused to see if the evil had desensitized them to pain or throwing them into a pond to see if it would sink, in this case he was innocent.
In communities where there was authority such as bishops, kings, or the Inquisition, convictions were generally infrequent and penalties much less severe. Many of the authorities tried to stop these trials.
The images of the famous witches have been very different throughout history.
From the evil-looking older women with a crooked nose and a wart, who spend much of their time by a bonfire and its cauldron full of bubbling potions.
Beautiful beings with malevolent faces that fly on their brooms, dressed in a cape and pointed hats, who let out terrible laughter, even nice good-natured little witches who distribute candies and sweets.
But the true story of witches and warlocks is dark, scary and deadly, usually for them.
During some eras, witchcraft was a punishable offence, someone accused of witchcraft or a non-believer of Christianity was labeled a heretic.
They were accused of organizing meetings of witches and wizards, to carry out rituals, sorceries and spells, the well-known coven or sabbat.
The accused was tortured for a confession and then hanged or burned at the stake.
Witches were persecuted in the early medieval period as they had been declared enemies of God by the church and were considered to be the cause of any natural disaster, illness or death.
Although people considered to be witches were persecuted during the medieval period, many researchers and historians have shown that large-scale witch hunts and executions occurred at the end of the medieval period.
The origin of these characters
Historians indicate that the first witches were those who used spells and performed rituals to ask for help from natural elements and spirits, with the intention of causing a change or modifying the course of events.
With this we refer to the cure of a disease, the solution to a drought, a good harvest, among other things. However, it began to be considered that most of these people, whom they began to call witches, were engaged in doing the work of the devil.
However, many of these men and women, although much more commonly women, were simply natural healers or “wise ones” whose choice of profession led to great confusion.
It is not clear exactly when the term witches appeared in history, but one of the earliest records that can be found is in the Old Testament of the Bible in the first book of Samuel.
I Samuel, presumed to have been written between 931 and 721 BC, tells the story of when King Saul sought out the fortune teller of Endor:
But when Saul saw the Philistine army, he was so scared that he lost heart. That is why he inquired of the Lord, but he did not answer him, neither in a dream, nor by the Urim, nor by the prophets. That is why Saul ordered his officers: “Find me a fortune teller, so that I can go and consult her.” I Samuel 28, 5-7.
His intention was to summon the spirit of the prophet Samuel, who had already passed away, so that it would help him defeat the Philistine army.
Other Old Testament verses also mention them and warn against resorting to witches to contact spirits.
Towards the year 1400, in Europe, nervousness and mass hysteria seized many communities, who suspected and accused witches right and left.
Many people were accused of being witches and sorceresses, tortured until they made the supposed confession that made them guilty.
They generally confessed, of course always under torture, the perverse behaviors that the authorities casually preached.
Witch hunts were becoming more common and most individuals involved in witchcraft and accused were sentenced to death and executed by burning or hanging.
Many single adult women, widows and others marginalized or on the fringes of society were frequently targeted.
Between the years 1500 and 1660, an estimated 80,000 women suspected of practicing witchcraft were executed in Europe alone.
It is estimated that about eighty percent of them were women who were only supposed or simply believed by someone to have pacts with malevolent spirits and were lustful.
In Europe, the largest number of executions for witchcraft were carried out in Germany, while the Irish nation was the one that carried out the least this type of action.
The Malleus Maleficarum or The Hammer of the Witches, was written around 1486 and is a treatise on the witch hunt written by two German Dominican monks, Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger.
It is considered to have been a work that further promoted all the hysteria of the time regarding the existence of witches and the incessant need to expose and eliminate them.
This book represents a guide on how to identify, hunt and interrogate witches, becoming an authority on the subject that many referred to when necessary.
The Malleus Maleficarum described witchcraft as heresy, also made reference to the propensity of women for this type of behavior due to an insatiable carnal appetite.
In the text, the authors considered women extremely dangerous due to their sexuality, tendency to infidelity, ambition and lust, but being necessary for reproduction.
This writing quickly became an authoritative book for Protestants and Catholics trying to expel the witches who lived among them.
For more than 100 years, it was a disturbing work that sold more copies than any other book in Europe except the Bible.
the salem witch trials
As the interest and hysteria due to sorceresses waned on the European continent, it increased on the American continent or as it was commonly called at the time the New World.
In these new destinations, the wars between the French and the British, the epidemics and the constant attack by the natives to recover their lands, promoted tensions and fear.
As expected, everything was well prepared to search and find someone responsible for so many calamities, at any time.
It was not enough to simply blame the natives, the tense environment led to the finding of scapegoats and many women were accused of witchcraft.
Of the best known witch trials that took place in the new world were those of Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692.
The Salem witch trials began when two community girls, Elizabeth Parris, 9, and Abigail Williams, 11, suffered seizures and hallucinations believed to be the product of poisoning from a fungus that causes spasms and delusions.
Many other women showed very similar symptoms, this being the trigger for mass hysteria and the capture of three women who were accused of witchcraft.
Sarah Good, Sarah Osborn and Tituba were the suspects, the latter being a slave owned by the Parris family. Tituba “claimed” to be a witch and accused others of practicing and using black magic.
Bridget Bishop was the first accused of practicing witchcraft to be sentenced and executed in the gruesome Salem witch trials. The woman was hanged, followed by eighteen more executions, twelve women and six men.
In this notorious witch hunt, around 150 people were accused. However, the Massachusetts colony was not the first to give in to the hysteria caused by the alleged existence of a witch.
Of the thirteen colonies, Windsor, Connecticut, was the first place in the United States where a person was executed for allegedly practicing witchcraft, in 1647.
Alse Young was her name and she was followed by forty-six accused and eleven murdered for this cause, that is before the last Connecticut witch trial took place in 1697.
In the Virginia area, the mass hysteria was not like in the other colonies, people were less frantic about the alleged existence of witches.
Around 1655 in Lower Norfolk County, a law was proposed and passed making it a crime to falsely accuse a person of witchcraft.
However, witchcraft was always a matter of concern, and nearly two dozen trials of alleged witches were held between 1626 and 1730 in the Virginia area, but there were no executions.
Perhaps the most famous case in Virginia history is that of Grace Sherwood, who was accused by her neighbors of killing their pigs and haunting their cotton fields, among other accusations.
In 1706 Grace Sherwood was brought to trial and subjected by the court to the well-known ordeal of cold water, which would determine her guilt or innocence.
This test was performed on an individual accused of practicing witchcraft and consisted of immersing him in a stream of water with his arms and legs tied.
If the body sank, it was innocent and if it floated, it was guilty. In Sherwood’s case she apparently did not sink and therefore she was considered a witch and she was condemned. However, this woman was not executed, but she remained imprisoned for eight years.
This cold water test was often used as a way to discover and unmask witches and sorceresses. It is important to note that none of these witch tests were officially recognized.
Later about 1730, the appearance in the Pennsylvania Gazette of an article, presumed to be written by Benjamin Franklin, concerning a witch trial in New Jersey, ridiculed many of the accusations and cases of alleged witchcraft.
This article, in a satirical tone, sharply criticized this type of process inspired by unfounded and illogical accusations, thus collaborating in the process of disappearance of this type of mania.
It was not long the time that passed before the hysteria and manias arising from the existence of witches, disappeared in the New Continent.
In addition, to finish putting an end to this disaster, in many places laws were approved that protected people from a false accusation and an unjust conviction.
Does witchcraft exist today? Well yes, modern paganism, neopaganism or contemporary paganism is a movement that brings together spiritual traditions that focus their worship on the elements of nature and which many call witchcraft.
Neopaganism generally brings together some traditional practices with current religious thought.
This uses ancient wisdom that adapts to the requirements and concerns of today’s man.
This movement is a reconstruction, which fuses the old and traditional paganism, with current alternatives and that continues betting on the persistence of the ancient pagan cults.
Many consider it the opposition to religions that believe in the existence of a single God, in precepts that are universal and indisputable and that are also proselytizing, such as Christianity and Islam.
Affirming that its origin is due to the fascination and idealization of ancient pagan cults and traditional societies.
Contemporary paganism or neopaganism is considered a recent creation, which emerged in different media and environments around the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Some suppose that it was born from the desire of certain romantics to reject what is related to modernity that came from Christianity, the French, industrial revolution, etc.
The main religious component of Neopaganism is:
-Pantheistic conception, which can be translated as “God in everything” and that defends that God, the universe and nature are the same, that is, the divinity or God is not a being apart from the world, it is not considered as in certain religions a separate entity, but a whole with the world.
Pantheism is a model that is attributed to several philosophers, such as: Juan Escoto Erígena (815-877 AD), Nicolás de Cusa (1401-1464) and Giordano Bruno (1548-1600).
-Conception polytheistic, ie admits several deities or gods. At present, the reappearance of cults dedicated to pre-Christian Celtic, Germanic, Slavic deities, etc. can be observed.
The term paganism was used to describe those who had not yet embraced Christianity. Considered by many as a term that shows contempt, it separates believers from the Christian God, from those who had other types of beliefs.
There are several groups that come together under this name and that take up the banner of modern paganism, for example Druidism, Shamanism and Wicca.
However, even though they are all different, they share certain similarities, since they are all described as a movement that is not dogmatic, they are not based on rigid doctrines and faith is closely related to personal experience.
The great importance given to nature is another peculiarity in the different neopagan groups.
The interest placed in nature and the environment, recognizing its divine spark and promoting ecological awareness are important qualities and characteristics of a follower of this trend.
It is common, that due to the respect and reverence they have for nature, pagans tend to adopt a way of life that minimizes the impact they can have on the environment.
Some of these groups accept and believe that just as diverse as nature is, so is the divine realm.
Many of these groups believe their deities inhabit communities like those of mortals and that many of their cycles define the year and its celebrations.
Others simply consider the existence of two great deities, one male and one female.
In this type of movement there is the participation of both sexes, that is to say, both the worship of the Goddess and the God are appreciated, something that is greatly emphasized.
Most of those who call themselves modern witches struggle to eliminate the historical stereotype that accompanies them.
Many of these people practice Wicca, a religion that is official in the United States and Canada, considered part of the neopagan groups, whose beliefs are closely related to the earth and all its cycles.
His followers insist that what is essential among Wiccans is learning to establish connections with the way nature and the earth communicate.
Those faithful to this belief avoid evil and everything that can make them look bad, their motto is not to cause harm to anyone and strive to lead a peaceful and balanced life, staying in tune with nature and human beings.
Many of these modern witches and wizards perform rituals and spells, but not for something sinister, because if you harm others, it is simply not wicca anymore, since being all connected, eventually the damage will return to the one who sent it.
These sorcerers and witches use spells, which are a series of rituals and prayers that are carried out in the practice of witchcraft to ask for divine help in a certain aspect of life.
All spells must adhere to the code of conduct of this neopagan cult, which clearly states that any spell used to manipulate, dominate, or control another person is prohibited.
In this type of witchcraft, spells can change or adapt a Wiccan’s personality or specific wishes when casting the spell.
A Wiccan’s Book of Witchcraft is the so-called Book of Shadows. This will serve as a reference guide for witchcraft, a place where you keep charts and correspondences, spells and rituals you might like to try, divinatory meanings, and many other such things. nature.
Druidism or as Neo-Druidism is currently known, is a Celtic religion or doctrine that was taught by the Druids or the priestly class about 2000 years ago.
Druidism is a philosophy based on nature and new practitioners now imitate certain aspects of it.
It shares many elements in common with Wicca. it does not have an official dogma or Holy Scripture, so it can take many forms.
Its practitioners say that the principle of this philosophy is to live in harmony and respect the world, especially nature.
That is, those people who consider themselves pantheists, polytheists, monotheists and animists can simply adopt this philosophy, each with their respective differences.
Ásatrú or Norsk sed
Asatru, which in our language means Faithful to the gods , is one of the neopagan doctrines that comes from the pre-Christian Scandinavian culture,
It is recognized by nations such as Denmark, Norway, Iceland, the United States, Spain, Italy, and Russia.
It is a non-dogmatic belief and is practiced differently by each individual or community, but they do have certain aspects in common.
For example, the conviction of the goodness and the benevolent of life and that you should live with joy and courage. There is a close connection between the deities and the human being.
People are responsible for their actions and therefore every action generates a consequence for whoever performs it, good or evil returns to us.
Tribute is also paid to nature, it is loved and respected. It is believed in the connection with the ancestors and in the certainty that we will be part of the life of the generations that follow us even on another plane.
How to protect yourself from witchcraft?
Generally people are usually very interested in how to practice witchcraft? but many connoisseurs of the subject indicate that it is very important above all to learn to protect yourself.
Many people who practice witchcraft use some resources to protect themselves from spells, spells and enchantments.
Some used elements and potions, with herbs and plants, and also some chemical compounds such as the famous quicksilver or mercury. But what is quicksilver used for in witchcraft?
It has been used to protect against the evil eye and other negative influences since ancient times in almost all cultures.
Great properties and magical powers are attributed to him, to do good, but also evil.
Many individuals claimed that it was effective against some ailments and ailments such as rheumatism, dysentery and colic, as well as skin diseases.
Some wizards and witches also use symbols of protection against witchcraft, in the form of talismans and amulets, such as:
-Jet fists: the custom of using a fist comes from some Spanish regions, because in the past it was believed that this sign repelled or frightened unwanted non-visible beings.
It is currently made in jet because it is a mineral with the quality of rejecting negative energies. It is often used a lot in babies and the elderly who are usually the ones that most affect this type of bad energy.
-Cross of Caravaca: it is usually widely used for protection against the evil eye, envy and spells, so it is recommended to use it on a chain or cord, as a necklace.
-Turkish eye: ancient image originating in Greece and Turkey, it is said that this amulet protects against the evil eye and bad energies.
-Hamsa: it is known as the hand of Fatima, the hand of Miriam or Abhaya Mundra, it is a talisman known in many cultures and is often used to protect oneself from the evil eye and misfortune.
However, popular beliefs say that when the amulet has the fingers together, it favors good luck, but when the fingers are separated, it is to keep bad energies at bay.
-Eye of Horus and Eye of Ra:
Ra is the Egyptian god of the sky and the sun, the amulet is the representation of his right eye and serves to protect and subdue enemies.
Horus is an ancient deity of the sky and the stars. related to the moon and shadows, the amulet is his left eye and is used for healing and regeneration.
-Medal of San Benito: effective for protection against all evil and it is said whoever wears it obtains forgiveness for their sins, on the day of the saint’s feast.
However, not only are amulets worn, but some are placed at home and workplaces, prayers, prayers and psalms against witchcraft are also recited.
Many people also perform rituals and ceremonies to protect themselves from taking magic or sorcery, such as the mighty hand to ward off witchcraft.
The devotion to the Powerful Hand comes from Puerto Rico and is an image that represents the hand of Christ with the wound caused by the nail when he was crucified.
At the tips of each finger there is a spiritual figure starting with the thumb you can see the Child Jesus, the Virgin Mary, Saint Joseph, Saint Anne and Saint Joachim.
It is used to invoke protection, repel evil and attract blessings.
The prayer to the Powerful Hand must be accompanied by a small ritual. First of all, the supplications and petitions are presented, a light blue or white candle is lit and then the prayer is said:
My God, today I come with faith in search of your mercy, I live a distressing situation for me, that’s why today I turn to you.
Do not forsake me and guide me, that the door that wants to open in my way if it does not suit me, be your Powerful Hand the one that closes it and so I do not enter it.
But if through it the tranquility that I long for so much can enter my life, your Powerful Hand keeps that door open.
At your feet I place my prayers, I am a soul afflicted by fate that begs you to help him, because he cannot fight if your Powerful Hand does not stop the law of reason.
Almighty God, my Lord, forgive the sins and mistakes that I have committed.
I, (say your full name) have made many mistakes during my existence, but I ask you, give me strength and courage to endure the bitterness and setbacks of life. Amen.
In this video you can explain certain ways to do it, if you are interested in the subject:
Prayers to give back
There are certain defensive prayers that connoisseurs of the matter usually recommend to protect themselves from spells, spells, etc.
There is not only one prayer to return witchcraft, because many use some directed to certain saints and entities, others simply to Jesus Christ, that is left to the decision of the person:
To break spells, magic and spells
In the name of Jesus Christ, I rebuke, break, erase and eliminate from myself (say their full name), my children (if you have them, mention their full names) and from (any other person that it is necessary to mention) all curses, witchcraft , spell, black magic, bad luck or bad energy.
That all psychic power, enchantment or witchcraft that has been placed on me or my family, by any person or source of occult or psychic be broken and erased.
I order all spirits associated with this type of witchcraft or enchantment to move away now, in the name of Jesus.
Thank you Lord for setting us free! Amen.
To return sorcery and witchcraft
In the holy name of Jesus, I cut all ungodly silver cords and spell lines.
Lord Jesus, as your battle weapon that I am, I collapse, destroy, unlock and demolish all the walls that protect witches and wizards.
I break the power of all curses, witchcraft, spells, spells, hexes, incantations, charms, amulets, potions, concoctions, fetishes and psychic powers, of any magical art or mind control.
Overthrew and destroyed all witchcraft, voodoo, mind control, evil eye, bad luck, potions, spells, charms, death, disease, pain, torment, war and psychic power, prayer chains, incense and candle burning, unholy blessings, crystals, and everything that has been sent to me or any of my relatives.
I return all this along with the demons to the sender, seven more times.
To remove witchcraft from your home
God Almighty Father, I place my home in your hands, I consecrate my family to you, come and be with us.
That instead of my house you are present, come oh Lord and reside in my abode,
May our home be strong, may my home be protected and blessed by you, Holy Father.
Thank you father, for keeping my prayers in mind. My home is yours, it always resides in our lives. Amen.
To return witchcraft and ask for justice
With your permission and blessing great Father,
today I request your power to reverse any witchcraft, spell, incantation, spiritual and physical damage.
Protect me today and always from my enemies. keep me away from them and that is never within their reach.
Almighty Lord, eternal Father, you who can do everything, turn around all evil and damage that they send me.
I ask that those who want to harm me receive fair treatment for the evils they do.
Give me serenity, strength and guide my steps under your shelter and protection. Amen.
To flip witchcraft works
This prayer to reverse works of witchcraft and magic is addressed to Saint Michael the Archangel, effective in neutralizing enemies and destroying any bad energy:
“ Glorious Prince Saint Michael the Archangel, Chief of the Armies of God, terror of demons and evil spirits
I ask you to remove, cut and free my body and mind from all malevolent energy, destroy the influence and negative forces that anyone wants to send me or has sent me.
Heavenly Saint Michael Archangel, guardian and protector of all souls, in charge of all work in this world, I beg you, I implore you and I send you at this time and on this day, and I light this candle upside down.
So that you take care of turning every candle, lamp, candle, fetish, work, witchcraft, curse, spell, incantation or spell that has been made and comes against me.
May this turn against the body, senses and matter of those who want to harm me and my enemies and come all for my benefit and my favor .
May the three falls that Jesus took on his way to Calvary be the ones that my enemy gives and the last one be at my door, asking forgiveness for his fault.
May the heavenly bodies and the stars of the firmament be witnesses to my request. So be it”
What does the bible say about witchcraft and wizardry?
The position of Christianity regarding these practices has always been very clear, it is considered unacceptable and harmful, as it goes against the teachings of Jesus.
In the Bible this topic is referred to in different verses:
Yahweh spoke to Moses and said: “A man or woman in whom there is the spirit of a necromancer or fortune teller will die without remedy: they will be stoned. His blood will fall on them” Leviticus 20,1.27.
“ Now the works of the flesh are known: fornication, impurity, licentiousness, idolatry, sorcery, hatred, discord, jealousy, wrath, quarrels, divisions, dissensions, envy, drunkenness, orgies, and the like, about which I warn you. , as I warned you before, that those who do such things will not inherit the Kingdom of God.” Galatians 5:19-21
“But the cowards, the unbelievers, the abominable, the murderers, the impure, the sorcerers, the idolaters and all the liars will have their part in the lake that burns with fire and brimstone: which is the second death. ” Revelation 21,8
“ In the city there was already a long time ago a man named Simon who practiced magic and astonished the people of Samaria and said that he was something great.
Pedro replied: Go your money to perdition and you with it; for you have thought that the gift of God is bought with money. In this matter you do not have your part or inheritance, because your heart is not right before God.
Repent, then, of that your wickedness and pray to the Lord, to see if that thought of your heart is forgiven you; because I see that you are in the gall of bitterness and in bonds of iniquity. ” Acts 8, 9. 20-23
When traveling, exploring or getting to know is part of your interests, but you also like the subject of magic, sorcery or eccentricities, there are some museums in the world with interesting collections related to magic and witchcraft.
Here is a brief overview of the best known:
Hólmavík Museum of Magic and Witchcraft (Iceland)
In this museum it was inaugurated in 1996 and you can enjoy much of the history of witchcraft in Iceland, thanks to an exhibition that shows a fascinating compilation of the spells and rituals that the people of this region used.
From very simple things like a spell to protect yourself from the waters, win a fight, find a thief or much more incredible things like becoming an invisible being with the intention of finding food.
The place houses various objects to perform spells, spells and rituals, such as stones with magical powers, runes and some texts and books of magical wisdom or grimoires with natural and primitive medicine potions, charms and spells.
These books generally come from a few manuscript collections in the country.
In addition, they also have some collections on necromancy, with somewhat strange and even chilling objects, such as necropants or nábrók, human skin pants.
The Boscastle Museum of Witchcraft
The Witchcraft Museum of Boscastle, county of Cornwall (England), is an enclosure totally focused on the practice of witchcraft, having one of the most extensive and varied exhibitions of objects that are linked to witchcraft, especially of the belief wiccan
It is considered one of the most famous museums in the world in this style, as it contains much of the history of the development of pagan beliefs in the twentieth century.
Its founder was Cecil Hugh Williamson, who died at the age of ninety in 1999, he was a very interesting person, a declared witch and with no desire to hide, he dedicated a large part of his life to studying and practicing witchcraft.
In addition to working in different areas, such as being employed during the Second World War by the United Kingdom’s Secret Intelligence Service known as MI6 and in tobacco fields in what is now Zimbabwe, Cecil Williamson was also a screenwriter, editor and film director.
Needless to say, he was an influential practitioner of English neo-paganism, founder of the Witchcraft Research Center, great friend of Gerald Gardner, founder of Wicca, and of the important occultist Aleister Crowley.
After this, he planned the installation and inauguration of a witchcraft museum around 1947, but by then it was not legalized in the United Kingdom and it was an impossible task.
Around 1951, the year in which these practices were legal in the country, he founded the museum of witchcraft and magic where he could exhibit and protect his collection of objects related to it.
Initially located in the Isle of Man, where he also opened a restaurant called La Cocina de la Bruja or The Witche’s Kitchen.
However, the witcher decided to move his museum and after a few different locations around the UK, he settled in the little town of Boscastle. This small place in the county of Cornwall, has been the location of him until today.
The museum received countless visits from people interested in neopagan cults, giving them a space to meet, establish ties and expand many movements of this type.
In addition to the fact that the museum represented an innovation, which changed the vision of neopaganism, giving it a certain relevance in culture.
The Isle of Man museum was acquired by Gerald Gardner, who is considered the founder of Wicca, who kept it running until his death in 1964.
Williamson decided to sell the Boscastle Museum in 1999, to Graham King. The transaction was carried out at midnight on Samhain or Samaín, the most important celebration of Celtic origin for pagan Europe.
The museum allows you to appreciate a little the history of the neopaganism movements and the practice of witchcraft when they were taboo and represented a risk for those who had an interest in it.
A place where the memory of difficult times is kept and then some more friendly ones, when these practices were legalized.
Some of the exhibits that can be seen in the enclosure are the collections of witchcraft tools, utensils and artifacts, such as books, amulets, figures, spells, dolls, bottles, knives, jars, old drawings, brooms, hats, etc.
They are organized in different themes, such as the Wheel of the Year, the Horned, the Goddess, among others. There is also a section dedicated to the Witch Hunt.
Witchcraft Museum (Segovia)
In what is known as the “Old Museum of Witchcraft” a permanent exhibition was inaugurated, which previously visited some other countries such as Italy, Portugal, Holland, Mexico, among others.
This exhibition is focused on the history of witchcraft and sorcery, where you can see relics, poisons, potions, fetishes, dolls and utensils used by some witches or wizards, as well as instruments used during the time of the Inquisition, to mistreat, torture and execute sorcerers.
Witchcraft in pop culture
In pop culture, the appearance and characteristics of those who practice witchcraft can range from one pole to another.
From children’s stories to terrifying horror movies, witches are always present in many stories aimed at any age.
A sorcerer can be a character portrayed as a housewife keeping her powers hidden in Bewitched, a teenage girl learning to control her powers in Sabrina the Teenage Witch, or three sisters battling evil in the Sorceresses series.
Disney’s Sanderson sisters, Maleficent with two films that show a totally different facet of the original villain or Melisandre de Asshai, a character full of mystery from the Game of Thrones universe.
Without being able to fail to mention the famous wizard who, together with his friends, faced a powerful adversary and who fascinated the entire world with his books and movies, in the incredible Harry Potter saga.
Witchcraft and magic have inspired fearsome fiction and horror films, interesting series and sagas, and many children’s stories.