Can knowledge be acquired without studying? What is called infused science ? Does this expression have a religious or scientific connotation? The above questions will be answered in this article, which is why we invite you to read it carefully.
Popularly the expression “know by infused science” refers to the knowledge that is obtained without having received a formal education. In other words, it is knowing something without having studied to know it.
However, when dismembering the phrase using the definitions given in the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE), one has to:
- Find out by the exercise of the intellectual faculties the nature, qualities and relationships of things.
- Understand, warn, know, miss someone or something.
- Perceiving the object as different from everything that is not it.
- Set of knowledge obtained through observation and reasoning, systematically structured and from which general principles and laws with predictive capacity and experimentally verifiable are deduced.
- Know the erudition.
- Skill, mastery, body of knowledge in anything
You are infused with:
- adj. It is said of the graces and gifts that God instills in the soul.
- Knowledge received directly from God.
- Knowledge not acquired through study. u.m. in sitting iron.
These concepts given above allow us to indicate that infused science is knowledge that is obtained directly from the Creator, without any systematic study. According to this, it is not necessary to go to an educational institution to have knowledge.
In the religious sphere, the term alludes to the supernatural, specifically in Christianity, it is mentioned to refer to the duality of wisdom that Jesus Christ possessed: the human and the divine.
Therefore, the intelligence of Christ is granted to him directly by God so that he can understand and, at the same time, explain and make known everything that is difficult for the common man to understand.
Now, the inspired or infused science of the soul of Christ has been the object of multiple interpretations that have sometimes generated doubts, as you will see in the next sections.
On the inspired or infused science of the soul of Christ
As it was said before, this theory has produced uncertainty in some men, even in the theological ones, which is why we offer you several arguments below that will allow you to draw your own conclusions in this regard.
In this sense, the following ideas are outlined:
- Did inspired or infused science enable Christ to know all things?
- Without sensible images, would Jesus have been able to make use of infused science?
- Does an infused science have a discursive character?
- Is it possible to establish a comparison between the infused science and that of the angels?
- Inspired or infused science of Christ, was it a common science?
- Did the term infused science of the soul of Christ diversify into different habits?
Such approaches are based on the treatise called Summa Theologica, written by Saint Thomas Aquinas during the last years of his existence. You should know that this saint was characterized by the controversies generated by his words, with which he invited his listeners and readers to question everything and seek the reason for things.
If you want to know more about the structure of this religious book, we invite you to watch the video below:
However, in the later moments of his life, Saint Thomas Aquinas stopped writing this theological work claiming that: “After what the Lord deigned to reveal to me on the day of Saint Nicholas, everything I have written seems like straw to me, and that’s why I can’t write anything else.”
Even so, his students decided to complete the treatise after his death, finding in the third part of it the approaches that are set out below.
Did inspired or infused science enable Christ to know all things?
In the Summa Theologica three objections can be read that seem to denote that Jesus Christ could not know all things through inspired or infused science:
Firstly, we have that ” This science was infused into Christ for the perfection of his possible understanding .” In contrast, it is said that such perfection only had to do with what is humanly possible, that is, with what is understandable in a natural way without requiring extraordinary gifts to do so. So, Jesus Christ was not given the gift of knowing everything that goes beyond natural reason.
In the same way, in the third part of Ánima it is read that ” Images have the same relationship with human understanding as colors with sight. ” This means that through vision we can understand both what has color and what does not. have.
The fact that Jesus was endowed with infused science to optimize his knowledge does not necessarily mean that he knew the separate substances.
The last objection to this argument expresses that ” for the perfection of the understanding it is not required to know the singulars”. In this respect it could be said that Christ had no knowledge about singular things.
Contrary to these ideas, the Bible states that: “ And the Spirit of the Lord will rest on him: the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and power, the Spirit of knowledge and the fear of the Lord. He will delight to obey the Lord; he will not judge by appearances or make decisions based on hearsay .” (Isaiah 11, 2-3)
This passage from the Bible allows us to understand that Jesus, as we all know, was endowed with science infused by the Holy Spirit, to understand everything that exists on the face of the earth, material and immaterial things.
Inspired science allowed Christ to have knowledge about:
- The human sciences, being able to know everything possible in its essence as a man of flesh and blood.
- Divine revelation, because he was endowed with an understanding that allowed him to know beyond what the common man knows, either through wisdom, prophecies or any grace given through the power of the Holy Spirit.
Let us remember that at the beginning it was said that Christ possessed human and divine intelligence, understanding that he is a perfect being, capable of knowing everything. Having clarified this first argument, let us now move on to the second consideration.
Without sensible images, would Jesus have been able to make use of infused science?
As in the first approach, for this question there are three objections through which it could be inferred that the soul of Christ could not understand through this science without using imaginary representations.
- The first of them is that ” Images have the same relationship with understanding as colors with sight”
- In the second, reference is made to the fact that “ the soul of Christ is of the same nature as ours; otherwise he wouldn’t belong to our kind. “
- And thirdly, it is stated that ” man has received the senses to serve the intelligence “
Interpreting the previous quotes, it can be said that these objections call into question that Christ can use infused science without using visual representations, for the following reasons:
- Colors are used to exercise visual power, which is why images are essential to understand things.
- Man is incapable of reaching understanding without making use of images.
- It is considered unacceptable to think that the organ of sight was given to Christ for simple pleasure, without it being necessary to understand and know the images.
Christ, as a being endowed with divine intelligence, did not require images to know the realities that others could not know. He was able to undergo the sufferings like any mortal, but also his blissful soul allowed him to see beyond separate bodies and visual representations.
Human beings depend on the senses that we possess to achieve the understanding of things, but the infused science of the soul of Christ allows us to cross this barrier independently, let us remember that this is a supernatural knowledge because it is granted by God.
Does infused science have a discursive character?
Now corresponds the question related to the dilemma of whether the soul of Christ had science inspired or infused in a discursive way, the objections in this regard indicate that:
- “ We place neither the council nor the election in Christ. But both things are withdrawn from Christ because they imply comparison or discourse.
- “Man needs comparison and rational discourse to find out what he does not know”
- “The science of Christ was in the style of that of the blessed, who resemble angels, but in these there is no discursive science “
Due to these three ideas, it would seem that the soul of Christ does not have a discursive character, especially when thinking that he was a blessed person who did not require resorting to these methods that are typical of human beings.
Christ was a rational being, consequently his soul was also, therefore, he was characterized by having a discursive and comparative language. Of course, not in the proper way of human beings since the knowledge was divinely instilled in him, not acquired through study or research.
As an example of this, it can be read in a passage from the Bible that: “ This is how the Lord proceeded when he asked Peter: A. Who do the kings of the earth collect tribute from, their children or strangers? And, when Peter answered that, to strangers, he concluded: Then the children are exempt . (Matthew 17, 24-25)
Referring to the passage quoted above we can see how Jesus is able to deduce things very easily, also to make constant comparisons between one thing and another.
At this point we can highlight the parables used by Christ as a tool to explain in a simple and practical way, some things that for others were difficult to understand.
Is it possible to establish a comparison between the infused science and that of the angels?
This question aims to elucidate whether the inspired science of Christ was far below that of the angels, finding the following ideas in the Summa Theologica of Saint Thomas Aquinas as objections:
- First, it reads: “ Perfection is in proportion to the subject to be perfected. But the human soul, in the natural order, is inferior to the angelic nature.
- As a second point we have “The science of the soul of Christ was, in a certain way, comparative and discursive, something that cannot be said of the science of the angels”
- The last objection states that “A science is nobler the more immaterial it is. Now the science of angels is more immaterial than the science of the soul of Christ.
These reasonings express the superiority of angelic beings over the inspiring science of Christ’s soul, alleging that if He needed it to have perfect knowledge it was because it was imperfect, and the use of images denotes His inferiority.
In the Bible it is written that ” We see the one whom God made little less than the angels, Jesus, crowned with glory and honor for having suffered death” (Hebrews 2, 9)
This quote reveals that Christ was inferior only for being mortal and therefore, having suffered death like every human being, but he is not inferior in terms of inspiring science.
The duality that Christ represents as a human being and as a divine being, makes him inferior to the angels in the first aspect because it is well known that he suffered, he suffered like any mortal. However, the infused science of Christ’s soul was superior to the angels both for all that he knew and for the certainty of the same science.
The inspired or infused science of Christ, was it a habitual science?
In this section of the article we refer to three objections that make it appear that Christ did not have ordinary science:
- The first objection points out that “ the soul of Christ corresponds to the highest perfection. But the perfection of science in act is greater than the pre-existing one as habit ”
- As a second objection, we read in the theological text of Saint Thomas Aquinas that “because the habit is ordered to the act, it gives the impression that a habitual science that never becomes an act is useless. And since Christ knew everything, he would not have been able to contemplate all things in act if he had known them one after another, since it is not possible to traverse an infinite number of things .
- To conclude, it is said that “ usual science is a perfection of those who have it. And perfection is nobler than the subject perfected by it. Therefore, in case any created scientific habit ever existed in the soul of Christ, it would follow that a created thing would be superior to the soul of Christ. “
When interpreting these questions, everything points to the fact that in the soul of Christ there was no usual science, let us now see what is read against these suppositions.
We have reiterated on numerous occasions that the human part of Christ is similar to ours, which is why if our science is a habit, so was His. On the other hand, the soul of Christ could make use of infused or inspiring science whenever it wanted.
On this argument it can be concluded that the perfect soul of Christ could be in act or in thought, as an act it becomes habitual and as a thought it is not. Let us now review the last statement related to the infused or inspiring soul of Christ.
Did the infused science of Christ’s soul diversify into different habits?
Next we cite the objections by which it is considered that in the soul of Christ only one scientific habit coexisted.
- The more perfect a science is the simpler it is; hence the highest angels know by more universal forms.
- Our faith proceeds from the knowledge of Christ; That is why we read in Heb 12, 2: Looking at the author and finisher of faith
- The sciences are distinguished by their various formal objects. Now the soul of Christ knew all things under a single formality, namely, under the divinely infused light.
Under these premises it seems that the soul of Christ was not diversified but had a single scientific habit.
It is pointed out in the holy scriptures that: “ On a single stone, that is, on Christ, there are seven eyes . (Zechariah 3, 9)
It is known to all of us that the eye has the same meaning of science, it is inferred then according to this quote that a diversity of scientific habits coexisted in Christ.
Christ had knowledge of all things and in order to do so, the infused science of his soul was diversified into various habits, in attention to what was necessary to know, understand and explain.
To conclude this section, referring to the inspired science of the soul of Christ, we can say that Jesus, understood as God and man, had infused science that is nothing other than knowledge that has not been acquired through the teaching of a teacher or professor. .
On the contrary, it is a knowledge that comes directly from God and that made him able to come down to earth, live among us, preach his teachings, suffer death and then sit at his right hand.
The infused or inspiring science of Christ’s soul made him understand the prophecies, knowing that he was destined to die on the cross, even anticipating the words that others would pronounce before his death.
Who can know in advance so exactly the events that are to come? Who is capable of explaining human and spiritual things so wisely? Who can so easily make the incomprehensible understandable?
Only one being who has the grace of the Holy Spirit and who has been endowed with a knowledge that distinguished him above all others: Christ.
Now let’s see a video where we will listen to Pope Francis, talk about knowledge, science and creation:
Knowledge of Christ
Continuing with the theological dissertation, we proceed to analyze in greater depth the intellectual characteristics of Jesus Christ, reaffirming that He was the possessor of two natures and, consequently, also of two types of intelligence: the human and the divine. Both, far from opposing each other, complement each other.
Infused Knowledge of Christ
Our Lord was the possessor of infused knowledge, this theory is accepted by all believers of Christianity who consider that this type of understanding is not acquired through experience but in a single outpouring.
In consideration of the above, the Christian doctrine rests on the following theological foundations:
- The Man-God must have possessed all perfections (as faith or hope) except those that would be incompatible with his beatific vision, or with his innocence (as contrition), or with his character as Redeemer, which would be incompatible with the consummation of his glory.
- Now, infused science is not incompatible with the beatific vision of Christ, with his innocence, or with his character as Redeemer. Furthermore, the human soul of Christ is the first and most perfect of all created spirits, and a privilege granted to angels cannot be denied.
- Furthermore, a created intelligence is perfect only when, in addition to the vision of things in God, it has a vision of things in themselves; God only sees all things comprehensively in Himself. The Man-God, in addition to seeing them in God, would also perceive and know them through his human intelligence.
Sacred Scripture supports the existence of such science infused into the human intelligence of Christ:
- Saint Paul speaks of all the treasures of the wisdom and knowledge of God hidden in Christ (Col. 2, 3)
- Isaiah speaks of the spirit of wisdom and advice, of science and understanding, resting on Jesus (Is. 11, 2);
- The evangelist John points out that God has given his Spirit without measure to his divine envoy (John 3, 34);
- Matthew presents Christ as our supreme Teacher (Mt. 23, 10).
- In addition to divine and angelic knowledge, most theologians admit in the human intelligence of Jesus Christ a science infused per accidens, that is, an extraordinary understanding of things that could be learned in the ordinary way, similar to that given to Adam and Eve. (cf. St. Thomas III., Q. i, a. 2; QQ. viii-xii; Q. xv, a. 2).
Acquired Knowledge of Christ
Undoubtedly, Jesus Christ has an experimental understanding acquired through the use of his faculties, through his senses and creativity, just as it happens to all human beings.
That is why we can never say that the faculties that he had as a man were immobile or without activity. In this regard, the book of Luke explains that knowledge of him grew exponentially and naturally: “J esus progressed in wisdom, in stature, and in favor with God and men” (Luke 2, 52).
According to these words expressed by the evangelist Luke, infused and divine science coexisted and grew in Jesus, not only as an increase in his knowledge in terms of external effects, but as a real advance in his acquired knowledge.
It is not that this type of knowledge implied a greater object of his science, but it means that he gradually came to know, in a merely human way, some of the things that he had known from the beginning by his divine and infused science.
Extent of knowledge of Christ
It has already been said that the knowledge in the divine nature of Christ is coextensive with the omniscience of God.
As for the experimental knowledge acquired by Christ, it must have been at least equal to the science of the most gifted of men; It seems to us wholly unworthy of the dignity of Christ that his natural powers of observation and insight should have been less than those of other naturally perfect men.
But the main difficulty stems from the question of the degree of knowledge of Christ that flows from his beatific vision, and of his measure of infused knowledge.
Other considerations on infused science
Moving away from the theological aspect, let us now consider infused science from other perspectives, explaining how knowledge is obtained in the human being. In the individual there are three ways for information to reach the brain and organize itself: imitation, interaction and transmission.
Through imitation, a person is able to look at and copy everything that the other performs, for this to happen there must be elements that facilitate the event and that make the behavior possible, such as admiration, leadership, authority, superiority. , among others.
For its part, interaction is a mechanical act in which it is constantly repeated in order to bring information to the neurological system.
Transmission is the ability to share that knowledge with our peers, but for this to happen the individual must be constantly learning.
By this we mean that knowledge that is not acquired through study is possible, of course in the previous sections we emphasized diffuse science granted by supernatural factors while in this case we speak of other ways of acquiring knowledge.
Infused science learning
Man in his eagerness to know how that knowledge originates that has not been acquired through study, or what is currently called infused science, has carried out numerous experiments. One of them has to do with the way in which the understanding can be transmitted through the transmission of brain waves, some studies reveal that this is possible.
We refer specifically to the fact that novice pilots have managed to fly an airplane under the guidance of the waves emitted by the brains of people who are experts in this field of action.
We quote the words of one of the scientists involved in the experiment: “ We measured the brain activity patterns of six commercial and military pilots, and then these patterns were transmitted to other beginners while they were learning to fly an airplane in a flight simulator ”
It should be noted that flight simulators have been a fundamental element in pilot training since the 1970s. However, the technique called transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is of recent date.
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
According to those skilled in the art, tDCS contributes to the improvement of learning and the acquisition of skills of individuals who are training as pilots in aviation.
In consideration of the specialists who carried out the experiment “the tDCS applies a continuous electric current (such as that produced by a battery, a battery or a dynamo) of low intensity through electrodes placed on the scalp. Although there is a large loss of current in the scalp and skull, it seems that the current that reaches the cerebral cortex is sufficient to exert its action on the neurons”
The researchers insist on pointing out that “brain cells also work with electricity, which they generate by moving ions through the cell membrane and creating a potential difference just like in a battery (membrane potential)”
When tDCS reaches the surface of the cerebral cortex, it modifies the neuronal transmembrane potential, varying the level of excitability and modulating the frequency of neuronal firing. This technique is also known as neuromodulatory.
The video presented below explains how this technique stimulates memory, mental agility and knowledge:
Is infused science learning possible with tDCS?
According to the results obtained in the research carried out, the pilots in training who received cranial stimulation through electrodes placed on their heads had improvements in the skills to pilot an airplane.
This conclusion was the result of the following procedure:
- They measured, among other parameters, the average g-force (acceleration) of the aircraft during the simulated landing and compared it with control subjects who received a simulated stimulation.
- The g-force, or sensation experienced by people under acceleration, is an immediate indicator of pilots’ ability to land, the most difficult and critical phase.
- During training in the simulator, future pilots are asked to try to minimize it as much as possible.
- The HRL study is one of the first to show that tDCS is effective in accelerating pilot learning and proficiency.
In favor of this type of experiment there are various opinions issued by scientists, among which the following can be highlighted:
- “ Accelerating learning with brain stimulation could be commonplace in the future.
- “As we discover more about optimizing, customizing, and adapting brain stimulation protocols, we will likely see these technologies become routine in classroom and training settings”
- “Brain stimulation could be implemented for driver training classes, language learning, or preparation for standardized tests ”
However, as long as these results are not massive and it is proven that it is possible to transmit knowledge in this way, people will continue to think that it is only possible through the intervention of supernatural entities.
In this last section, a breakdown of three important aspects of the subject that has been addressed in the article will be made: the science of the beatific vision, the infused science and the acquired science.
The first element has to do with the Christian dogma that Christ is God, therefore, he has God’s intelligence, that is, he knows everything that can be known while in the heavenly plane.
With respect to infused science, a clear correspondence is established with one of the gifts of the Holy Spirit: that of science. This grace was granted to Our Lord Jesus Christ so that he could carry out everything that is written in Sacred Scripture, from his annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, his growth as a man and his death crucified for salvation and forgiveness. and the sins.
An infused knowledge made it possible for Christ to be able to observe things, facts and the way human beings act from a unique perspective, which only happens if the gift of the Holy Spirit has been received.
He had acquired knowledge or science because during the development of his existence he grew as a man and in wisdom, learning everything he could learn in all the contexts in which he found himself.
In this way we can imagine that, from his father, San José, he managed to learn the trade of wood carving, that is, carpentry.
What has been said so far has generated numerous controversies among those who do not fully understand this way of knowing that Christ had, in which sometimes it seemed that he knew everything, others that he knew little and others that he knew nothing.
Such ambiguity can be explained if we consider the fact that as God he had to have knowledge of everything, but as a man he would be ignorant of many things, which he would necessarily have to learn in his journey through life.
In short, believing or not believing in the infused science of the soul of Christ depends on each one of us, on the way we perceive the world, on our own religious beliefs and on the perspective we have about the scientific fact.
The following video explains in a simple way what concerns rationalism and empiricism as opposed to mysticism and infused science
We hope that after reading the information contained in this article you will be able to answer the initial questions: Can knowledge be acquired without studying? What is called infused science? Does this expression have a religious or scientific connotation?
We invite you to leave your answers in the comments section. In the same way we leave at your disposal the following electronic pages where you will find other topics of interest: